Apple Assembly Line
Volume 2 -- Issue 11 August 1982

In This Issue...

Subscription Renewals

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New Macro Cross Assemblers Available

The high cost of dedicated microprocessor development systems has forced many technical people to look for alternate methods to develop programs for the various microprocessors. Combining your very versatile Apple II with the S-C Macro Assembler provides a cost effective and powerful development system.

There are now three cross-assembler modules ready for the S-C Macro Assembler, and more to come. Each cross-assembler disk costs $32.50 to registered owners of the S-C Macro Assembler. You get both regular and language card versions, with documentation of the special features and differences. cross assembler diagram

The 6809 cross-assembler is designed to work with the Stellation Mill. The MGO command starts the 6809 processor executing your assembled object code. Likewise, the Z-80 version is designed to work with the Microsoft Softcard.

We have begun working on a Motorola 68000 version....

Search and Perform Subroutine Bob Sander-Cederlof

When writing an editor or other single-keystroke command system, a very common need is a subroutine which branches according to the value of a character. In Pascal and some other languages there is even a special statement for this programming need: CASE. You might do it like this in Applesoft:

     1000 GET A$
     1010 IF A$ = "A" THEN 2000
     1020 IF A$ = "C" THEN 3000
     1030 et cetera

You will often find the equivalent code in assembly language programs:

     1000        LDA CHARACTER
     1010        CMP #'A
     1020        BEQ CHAR.WAS.A
     1030        CMP #'C
     1040        BEQ CHAR.WAS.C
     1050   et cetera

Of course, it frequently happens that the number of different values is small, and the code sequence above with several CMP-BEQ pairs is the most efficient. It loses a little of its appeal, though, when you have to do it for more than about ten different values. And what if the branch points are too far away for BEQ relative branches? Then you have to write:

     1000        LDA CHARACTER
     1010        CMP #'A
     1020        BNE .1
     1030        JMP CHAR.WAS.A
     1040 .1     CMP #'C
     1050        BNE .2
     1060        JMP CHAR.WAS.C
     1070 .2   et cetera

That takes seven bytes of program for each value of the character.

Personally, I like to put the possible values and the corresponding branch addresses in a table, and search that table whenever necessary. Each table entry takes only three bytes. If the subroutine is used with several tables, and if there are a lot of possible values, then the tabular method saves a lot of memory.

I used the tabular method in my still-in-development word-processor. To speed and simplify the coding of the table entries, I wrote a macro definition JTBL as follows:

     1020        .MA JTBL
     1030        .DA #$]1,]2-1
     1040        .EM

This defines a macro JTBL with two parameters. The first one will be the hexadecimal value to compare the test-character with, and the second one will be the branch address for that value. For example, if I write the macro call:

     1400        >JTBL 86,FLIP.CHARS

the S-C Macro Assembler will generate:

                 .DA #$86,FLIP.CHARS-1

The "-1" is appended to each branch address in the table, because I use the PHA-PHA-RTS method to perform the branch. Before I go any farther, here is the search and branch subroutine:

     1230        INY                POINT TO NEXT ENTRY
     1240        INY
     1250        INY
     1270        LDA T.BASE,Y       GET VALUE FROM TABLE
     1280        BEQ .1             NOT IN THE TABLE
     1290        CMP CURRENT.CHAR
     1310 .1     LDA T.BASE+2,Y     LOW-BYTE OF BRANCH
     1320        PHA
     1330        LDA T.BASE+1,Y     HIGH-BYTE OF BRANCH
     1340        PHA
     1350        LDY #0     (SINCE MOST BRANCHES WANT Y=0)
     1360        RTS                DO THE BRANCH!

There are so far four different value-branch tables in my word processor. Here is an abbreviated listing:

     1380 T.BASE
     1400        >JTBL 82,SCAN.BEGIN
     1410        >JTBL 83,TOGGLE.CASE.LOCK
      . . . . . .
     1540        >JTBL 9B,ESC0.ESC
     1550        >JTBL 00,SC.BELL
     1560 *--------------------------------
      . . . . . .
     1690        >JTBL EB,SCAN.RIGHT
     1700        >JTBL ED,SCAN.DOWN
     1710        >JTBL 00,ESC2.END
     1720 *--------------------------------
     1730 T.MAIN >JTBL C4,MAIN.DOS
     1740        >JTBL C5,MAIN.EDIT
      . . . . . .
     1800        >JTBL D3,MAIN.SAVE
     1810        >JTBL 00,MON.BELL
     1820 *--------------------------------
     1830 T.AUX  >JTBL C3,COPY.BLOCK
     1840        >JTBL C4,DELETE.BLOCK
      . . . . . .
     1890        >JTBL D3,SAVE.SEGMENT
     1900        >JTBL 00,SC.BELL

Notice that each of the four tables ends with a 00 value. The branch address after the 00 value tells where to branch if the current character does not match any values in the table.

When I want to compare the current character with entries in the T.MAIN table, here is how I do it:

     2000        LDY #T.MAIN-T.BASE
     2010        JSR SEARCH.AND.PERFORM

The LDY instruction sets Y to the offset of the table from T.BASE, and the search subroutine references the table relative to T.BASE. I use JSR to call the search subroutine. The search subroutine uses PHA-PHA-RTS to effectively JMP to the chosen branch address. And then the value processor ends with RTS to return to the next line after the JSR SEARCH.AND.PERFORM.

Counting all four tables, I have 45 branches, occupying 3*45 = 135 bytes. If I had used the CMP-BEQ method, which occupy four bytes per value, it would have taken 4*45 = 180 bytes. The subroutine is only 23 bytes long, so I saved 22 bytes. But if I needed the longer CMP-BNE-JMP sequences throughout, I would have had 7*45 = 315 bytes! Wow! Long live tables!

Tables have even more advantages. For one, they are a lot easier to modify when you want to add or delete a value. For another, the program is easier to read when there is no rat's nest of branches to try to unravel. For me, it almost makes the assembly listing as easy to read as the reference manual!

Notice that it would be possible to overlap tables using my subroutine. I might need at some times to search for 13 different values, and at others to search for only 7 of those same values, with the same branches. If so, the seven entries in common would be grouped at the end of the 13-entry table. The table has two labels, like this:

     3000 T.13   >JTBL C1,DO.A
     3010        >JTBL C4,DO.D
      . . . . .
     3050        >JTBL CF,DO.O
     3060 T.7    >JTBL C2,DO.B
     3070        >JTBL C5,DO.E
      . . . . .
     3120        >JTBL D7,DO.W
     3130        >JTBL 00,DO.NOTHING

What about speed? Well, it is pretty fast too. The CMP-BNE-JMP takes five cycles for each value that does not compare equal, and finally seven cycles for the one which compares equal. If the tenth comparison bingos, that is 9*5+7 = 52 cycles. The subroutine takes 171 cycles for the same search. Over three times longer, but still less that 120 microseconds longer. You would have to perform the search over 8000 times in one day to add a whole second of computer time!

AUTO-MANUAL Toggle for S-C Macro Assembler R. F. O'Brien

Here is a small program to accompany Bill Morgan's Automatic Catalog in the June '82 issue of AAL. This routine adds an AUTO/MANUAL command toggle to the S-C Macro Assembler. Using CTRL-A when the cursor is at the beginning of a line enters the AUTO line numbering mode and waits for input of a line number and/or RETURN. Entering another CTRL-A while in AUTO mode and at the start of a line executes a MANUAL command.

In addition, I have added some code to provide slow and fast listings at a single keypress. CTRL-S does a SLOW LIST command, which is cancelled by a 'RETURN' during listing. CTRL-L will provide a listing at normal speed (assuming the slow list has been cancelled.)

The patch is implemented as follows:

     1. Enter the S-C Macro Assembler
     2. :$101D:33 N 1000G
     4. :$138D: 4C 28 32        (JMP PATCH instead of JSR BELL)
     5. :BSAVE AUTO/MAN S-C MACRO ASM,A$1000,L$2300

Note: You may omit step 2 if you have already installed Bill's automatic CATALOG.

 1000  *--------------------------------
 1020  *
 1030  *  BY ROBERT F. O'BRIEN
 1040  *     14, CLONSHAUGH LAWN, DUBLIN 5.
 1050  *--------------------------------
 1060        .OR $3228
 1070        .TF AUTO/MANUAL PATCH
 1080  *--------------------------------
 1090  CH     .EQ $24
 1100  SC.SLOW    .EQ $11D2
 1110  SC.REENTER .EQ $135E
 1120  SC.RETURN  .EQ $13C3
 1130  SC.INSTALL .EQ $152A
 1140  SC.LIST    .EQ $183F
 1150  MON.BELL   .EQ $FF3A
 1160  *--------------------------------
 1180         CMP #$81     CTRL-A?
 1190         BEQ AUTO.TOGGLE
 1200         CMP #$8C     CTRL-L?
 1210         BEQ LIST
 1220         CMP #$93     CTRL-S?
 1230         BEQ SLOW.LIST
 1240  *
 1270  *--------------------------------
 1290         LDA CH
 1300         CMP #1       BEGINNING OF LINE?
 1310         BEQ AUTO.CMD
 1320         CMP #6       AFTER LINE NUMBER?
 1330         BEQ MANUAL.CMD
 1340         BNE BACK
 1350  *--------------------------------
 1360  AUTO.CMD
 1370         LDX #0
 1400         CPX #5
 1410         BCC .1
 1420         JMP SC.REENTER
 1430  AUTO.TEXT  .AS -/AUTO /
 1440  *--------------------------------
 1460         LDX #0
 1470         STX CH       GO TO START OF LINE
 1480  .1     LDA MANUAL.TEXT,X
 1490         JSR SC.INSTALL
 1500         CPX #6
 1510         BCC .1
 1520         JMP SC.RETURN
 1540  *--------------------------------
 1550  LIST   LDA CH
 1560         CMP #1       BEGINNING OF LINE?
 1570         BNE BACK
 1580         JSR SC.LIST
 1590         JMP SC.RETURN
 1600  *--------------------------------
 1610  SLOW.LIST
 1620         LDA CH
 1630         CMP #1
 1640         BNE BACK
 1650         JSR SC.SLOW  SET SLOW MODE
 1660         JSR SC.LIST
 1670         JMP SC.RETURN

Free Space Patch For the S-C Assembler Mike Sanders

Volume 5, Number 6 of Call A.P.P.L.E. has an article giving a DOS patch to replace the volume number printed during catalog with number of free sectors remaining on the disk.

The routine as published works for both Applesoft and Integer BASIC, but does not work with the language card version of the S-C Assembler. Only a few changes were needed to make it work with all three.

A call to Bob gave me the location of the decimal print routine in the S-C Macro Assembler, Language Card Version.

The original code as published in CAll A.P.P.L.E. checked location $E006 to see what language is in use. My code looks at $E001, which has a different value in each of the three:

               Language   $E001
               Applesoft:  $28
           Integer BASIC:  $00
     S-C Macro Assembler:  $94

The code in lines 1320-1370 checks which language is in use and jumps to the right routine. I also changed the zero page locations used to count the number of free sectors because the S-C Assembler print routine expects the two-byte value to be in $D3 and $D4.

The rest of the code works as explained in the Call A.P.P.L.E. article. I refer you to it for more details and as an excellent lesson on reducing the size of code.

Install the two patches to DOS by BLOADing the two binary files FREE.SECTORS.1 and FREE.SECTORS.2. The type CATALOG to see the how many free sectors you have.

 1010  *--------------------------------
 1020  *      FREE SECTORS PATCH FOR DOS 3.3
 1030  *--------------------------------
 1040  LOBYTE .EQ $D3
 1050  HIBYTE .EQ $D4
 1060  *--------------------------------
 1070  SECTOR.MAP .EQ $B3F2
 1080  LANG.ID    .EQ $E001    LANGUAGE ID
 1120  *--------------------------------
 1130         .OR $BA69
 1140         .TF FREE.SECTORS.1
 1150  *--------------------------------
 1170         LDY #$C8
 1180  .1     LDA SECTOR.MAP,Y
 1190         BEQ .4            NO FREE SECTORS IN THIS BYTE
 1200  .2     ASL               SHIFT INTO CARRY
 1210         BCC .2            SECTOR IN USE
 1220         PHA               SECTOR FREE
 1230         INC LOBYTE        COUNT IT
 1240         BNE .3
 1250         INC HIBYTE
 1260  .3     PLA               SECTOR MAP BYTE AGAIN
 1270         BNE .2            IF ANY LEFT
 1280  .4     DEY               NEXT BYTE OF SECTOR MAP
 1290         BNE .1
 1300         LDX LOBYTE        VALUE IN X AND A
 1310         LDA HIBYTE
 1330         BMI SCASM         $94: S-C ASSEMBLER
 1340         BEQ INTEGR        $00: INTEGER BASIC
 1350         JMP PRT.FP        $28: APPLESOFT
 1380  *--------------------------------
 1390         .OR $ADB9
 1400         .TF FREE.SECTORS.2
 1410  *--------------------------------
 1420         NOP               FILLER
 1430         LDA #0            ZERO THE COUNT
 1440         STA LOBYTE
 1450         STA HIBYTE
 1470  *--------------------------------

The Macro-Videx Connection Don Taylor

It seems that whenever I purchase a new hardware product for my Apple, I spend countless hours honing my most precious software tools to make them compatible with it. I purchased my Videx Videoterm card for use with Pascal, and had no intention of using it with the S-C Assembler. Then one fateful day I made a temporary patch to Version 4.0 -- just to see what it would look like -- and I was immediately hooked....

You won't believe what it's like to assemble with 80 columns of display! You can actually write source files that are legible on the screen, with no wraparound on comments -- even during assembly. What you see on the display is what you would see on a printer, only cleaner.

When I upgraded to the S-C Macro Assembler, I was compelled to produce a configuration file that would modify the new assembler to work with the Videoterm board. The resulting source file is included with this article.

The assembled SCM80 file will reconfigure a copy of the S-C Macro Assembler Version 1.0 that is currently resident in memory (for more about this concept, see "Controlling Software Configuration", AAL April '82).

Once the mods are installed you will be able to use your Videx for everything except: (1) Using the Escape-L sequence to LOAD a disk file whose name appears on the display, and (2) Using the copy key (right arrow). You will still be able to use Escape-L to generate the normal dashed comment line, and you can use the other escape functions to move the cursor and clear portions of the screen.

SCM80 will display control characters (and other selected strings intended to be so) in inverse on your screen, provided you have the standard (inverse) alternate character generator ROM installed in your Videoterm. If you have some other ROM installed, these characters and strings may be printed in Chinese. In this case you may want to modify the new character output routine!

SCM80 will also permit painless switching of case while using the assembler. A control-A keypress will always be recognized as a "shift lock" signal, while a control-Z will be treated as a "shift unlock". This feature makes it easy to write easy-to-read source files.

The assembled SCM80 code is moved into memory immediately following the assembler, and is located at one of two places, depending on which flavor (vanilla or language card) of the assembler you're using. The flavor of the configuration file is made to match that of the assembler through the use of a conditional flag (LCVERSION) and several conditional assembly statements. Another equate variable, SLOTNUM, allows you to specify the slot in which your Videx board resides.

How It All Works

There are two primary steps involved in installing the modified code in the assembler: (1) Moving the new code into the area of memory immediately following the assembler, and (2) Patching the existing assembler code to point to the new routines and then returning or cold-starting the system.

The SCM80 code contains both the new Videoterm support routines and the routines used to install those support routines. It loads in at $4000, stuffs the Videoterm routines just beyond the assembler code, and then performs the return or cold start. Depending on the flavor, a few other small tasks are performed in the process; let's take a closer look.

Lines 1280-1310 contain the two constants used to tailor SCM80 to assembler flavor and Videoterm slot number. The last two lines are the starting addresses where the new code will be relocated, depending on the flavor. The LCVERSION flag is used to determine the base address of the assembler in lines 1340-1380; this base address is used throughout the rest of the listing to determine absolute patch addresses within the assembler.

The Videoterm support routines are contained in lines 3240-3770. Lines 3400-3700 contain replacement routines for two of the routines in the line editor portion of the assembler. The NEW.WARM.ENTRY routine in lines 3240-3260 is intended to keep the Videoterm in the saddle during a RESET or system warm start.

The code in lines 3820-4740 are replacements for some of the standard monitor routines. Several of these routines have no other purpose than to support the escape cursor movements. In the case of the language card flavored RDKEY, an extra subroutine is provided to unprotect the RAM during case-shift sequences (more about that in a minute).

Lines 1770-2040 use the monitor's MOVE routine to slip the support routines into their designated origin at $3200 or $F400. The vanilla version patches the assembler's symbol table address to make room for the move; the language card version unprotects RAM prior to the move.

The patching of the assembler is done in lines 2050-2920. unused code is NOP-ed out here, and jumps are strategically poked in to point to the new routines. A replacement escape jump table created in lines 2950-3090 gets installed in the assembler, so the new escape routines can be accessed in the standard manner. The assembler's cold start routines are patched to point to the resilient NEW.WARM.ENTRY routine (more about that in a moment, too).

Lines 2870-2920 complete the installation and patching process. For the vanilla version, a simple RTS returns control to the calling program. The language card version first write protects RAM and then performs a DOS cold start. Once the assembled code has been installed and the patches made, the installation portion of SCM80 is of no use, so a cold start should be performed to reset the assembler's file pointers, leaving only the SCM80 code that is now supporting your Videoterm.

Assembly and Installation

You'll note the absence of any .TF directive in the listing, meaning you'll have to manually save this file when you're done. This is because although the resulting object code will be located in continuous memory, it has origins (.OR directives) at two locations. The actual length of the file is calculated by a variable called LENGTH. The instructions for assembly are contained in the source file's title block. I call my vanilla patch file SCM80, and the language card version SCM80.LC.

With the assembler code resident in memory, there are several ways of installing the patches. Perhaps the most straightforward is to BRUN the assembled patch file, or BLOAD it and type 4000G as a monitor command. If you're using the vanilla assembler, you'll need to force a cold start of the assembler by typing "NEW" or 1000G as a monitor command; this action will ensure all the internal patches have been installed into DOS as well. The language card version cold starts itself, and requires no intervention.

A cleaner way is to use an EXEC file. The following file will bring up the vanilla version of the assembler:

     CALL -151                Enter the monitor
     BLOAD S-C.ASM.MACRO      Load the Assembler
     BLOAD SCM80              Load the patches
     4000G                    Install them, and
     1000G                    Start the assembler!

To load the language card patches with an EXEC file, refer to Bob's EXEC file on the top of Page 4 of the May '82 AAL, and replace "3D3G" with the following two lines:

     BLOAD SCM80.LC           Load the LC patches
     4000G                    Install them and cold start!

The character I/O is being vectored through routines at the end of the assembler; for the language card version, these routines are somewhere in $F4XX. If you decide to issue an "FP" command from that version, you'll find yourself in "Never-Never Land". It's good practice to issue a "PR#n" first (where "n" is the Videoterm's slot number). When you type "INT" to restart the assembler, the special I/O routines will automatically be hooked in.

A Funny Thing Happened on the Way...

Bob thought it would be enlightening to touch on some some of the crazy things that went on during the development of these routines. I always marvel at people like Bob, Mike, Bill, and Lee, who have a gift for writing machine language, and can sit down and bang out a line editor in a few hours.

The rest of us aren't quite so fortunate. SCM80 took my three days to write, even though I had done some quick patches on Version 4.0. A couple of good ones popped up during that time, and I'll pass them along.

I was determined to interface the Videoterm using only its terminal functions, avoiding any internal Videoterm ROM routines that would make the interface version-dependent (my card matches neither the descriptions nor the ROM source listings contained in my manual!).

The Videoterm will not move its flashing cursor to a GOTOXY Location unless the cursor is first placed there and then a character is output; under BASIC, you can't just HTAB and VTAB to a position and GET a character -- you have to print a character first (even a null character will do it), in order to move the cursor!

After spending several hours fighting with the Videoterm over who was controlling the input and output cursor locations, I finally decided to designate my own locations for CH and CV (normally at $24 and $25) for use by the editing routines.

The other frustration I incurred was doing the case-switching in the replacement RDKEY routine. I was using the language card version, and had carefully checked my code, but the assembler just wouldn't switch case for me. True confession: it took almost fifteen minutes before it dawned on me that the assembler's case flag (at $D016) was write protected! Hence, the special unprotect subroutine called by the new RDKEY.

One final note concerns the contortions in the replacement COUT and WARM.ENTRY routines (at least I saw these coming!). We need to keep our new RDKEY routine in the DOS input hook to keep things working predictably. The Videoterm, when installed by placing it in the output hook and calling it to output a character, takes over the input hook as well. In addition, we have a replacement COUT routine that is designed to detect and modify control characters for display prior to their output.

In order to avoid arm-wrestling with the Videoterm over who controls the input hook, I used a strange but effective technique. During the installation and patch portion, I install the Videoterm in the designated slot, hook it in, and send a bogus character to make sure it has installed its warm entry I/O locations in DOS ( $AA52-$AA56 for 48K machines). The code immediately following uses an internal assembler routine to calculate the address of the DOS output hook, regardless of memory size. The contents of the DOS output hook are then moved into the new COUT routine, immediately following a JMP, and the same COUT routine is forced into the DOS hook, along with the new RDKEY routine. Whenever a character is output, it will first be given to COUT; when COUT has done its work, the character is then passed to the Videoterm's warm entry.

During the installation and patch, the warm start vector within the assembler was modified to point to the NEW.WARM.START routine, which re-installs COUT and RDKEY, keeping everything in sync. A RESET will always restore this condition, no matter what the Videoterm may have in mind!

The S-C Macro Assembler is a wonderful piece of software, and the upgrade is a steal at $27.50. The only thing that can top it is being able to use it with 80 columns of display!

If you find any errors in my patches, or come up with some new features, contact me at (206) 779-9508.

 1000         .LIST OFF
 1010  *--------------------------------
 1020  *                SCM80
 1030  *  Patches for S-C Macro Assembler V1.0
 1040  *        for Videx Videoterm Card
 1050  *
 1060  * Date: 7/10/82
 1070  *
 1080  * Don Taylor
 1090  * infoTool corporation
 1100  * Drawer 809, Poulsbo, WA  98370
 1110  *
 1120  * To assemble this file:
 1130  *
 1140  *      1.  Set SLOTNUM to slot number of videx card
 1150  *
 1160  *      2.  Set LCVERSION flag for
 1170  *            .EQ 1 for Language card version ($D000)
 1180  *            .EQ 0 for Standard version ($1000)
 1190  *
 1200  *      3.  Assemble as usual
 1210  *
 1220  *      4.  Use VAL LENGTH to get length in hex
 1230  *
 1240  *      5.  BSAVE SCM80, A$4000, L$LENGTH
 1250  *
 1260  *--------------------------------
 1270  *
 1280  SLOTNUM             .EQ 3    VIDEX slot
 1290  LCVERSION           .EQ 1    SCM80 version
 1300  PATCH.AREA          .EQ $3200
 1310  LC.PATCH.AREA       .EQ $F400
 1320  *
 1330  *--------------------------------
 1340         .DO LCVERSION
 1350  SCM.BASE   .EQ $D000
 1360         .ELSE
 1370  SCM.BASE   .EQ $1000
 1380         .FIN
 1390  *--------------------------------
 1400  *  Program Constants
 1410  *--------------------------------
 1420  MON.CSW             .EQ $36
 1430  MON.KSW             .EQ $38
 1440  MON.A1L             .EQ $3C
 1450  MON.A2L             .EQ $3E
 1460  MON.A4L             .EQ $42
 1470  SCM.POINTER         .EQ $58
 1480  SCM.CURR.CHAR       .EQ $61
 1490  SCM.ED.BEGLIN       .EQ $80
 1500  NEW.CH              .EQ $98
 1510  NEW.CV              .EQ $99
 1520  SCM.WBUF            .EQ $200
 1530  DOS.COLD.ENTRY      .EQ $3D3
 1540  DOS.IOHOOK          .EQ $3EA
 1550  FLAGS               .EQ $7F8  VIDEX Flag Byte
 1560  KEYBOARD            .EQ $C000
 1570  KEYSTROBE           .EQ $C010
 1580  SCM.WARM.ENTRY      .EQ SCM.BASE+$003
 1590  SCM.SHIFT.FLAG      .EQ SCM.BASE+$016
 1600  SCM.SYM.TABLE       .EQ SCM.BASE+$01D
 1610  SCM.TEST.DOS        .EQ SCM.BASE+$31E
 1620  SCM.RDL.EOL         .EQ SCM.BASE+$35E
 1630  SCM.RDL3            .EQ SCM.BASE+$3C3
 1640  SCM.ESC.TABLE       .EQ SCM.BASE+$467
 1650  SCM.ESC.L           .EQ SCM.BASE+$483
 1680  SCM.SPC             .EQ SCM.BASE+$D92
 1690  MON.MOVE            .EQ $FE2C
 1700  MON.OUTPORT         .EQ $FE95
 1710  MON.COUT            .EQ $FDED
 1720  MON.RTS             .EQ $FF58
 1730  *--------------------------------
 1740         .OR $4000
 1750  START1     .EQ *
 1760  *--------------------------------
 1770  MOVE.CODE
 1780         LDA #HERE
 1790         STA MON.A1L
 1800         LDA /HERE
 1810         STA MON.A1L+1
 1820         LDA #THERE
 1830         STA MON.A2L
 1840         LDA /THERE
 1850         STA MON.A2L+1
 1860  *--------------------------------
 1870         .DO LCVERSION
 1880         BIT $C083    Unprotect language card RAM
 1890         BIT $C083
 1900         LDA #LC.PATCH.AREA
 1910         STA MON.A4L
 1920         LDA /LC.PATCH.AREA
 1930         STA MON.A4L+1
 1940         .ELSE
 1950         LDA #$33     Modify symbol table address
 1960         STA SCM.SYM.TABLE
 1970         LDA #PATCH.AREA
 1980         STA MON.A4L
 1990         LDA /PATCH.AREA
 2000         STA MON.A4L+1
 2010         .FIN
 2020  *--------------------------------
 2030         LDY #0
 2040         JSR MON.MOVE
 2060         LDA #$EA     "NOP-OUT" unused code:
 2070         STA SCM.BASE+$343
 2080         STA SCM.BASE+$344
 2090         STA SCM.BASE+$028
 2100         STA SCM.BASE+$029
 2110         STA SCM.BASE+$02A
 2120         LDX #9
 2130  .1     STA SCM.BASE+$298,X
 2140         DEX
 2150         BPL .1
 2160         LDX #14
 2170  .2     STA SCM.BASE+$4DE,X
 2180         DEX
 2190         BPL .2
 2200         LDX #48
 2210  .3     STA SCM.BASE+$B35,X
 2220         DEX
 2230         BPL .3
 2240         LDA #$20              Install Videx during a
 2250         STA SCM.BASE+$295     cold start
 2260         LDA #INSTALL.VECTORS
 2270         STA SCM.BASE+$296
 2280         LDA /INSTALL.VECTORS
 2290         STA SCM.BASE+$297
 2300         LDA #HOME    Patch clear screen routine
 2310         STA SCM.BASE+$2A6
 2320         LDA /HOME
 2330         STA SCM.BASE+$2A7
 2340         LDA #NEW.WARM.ENTRY   Set up warm start so
 2350         STA SCM.BASE+$309     VIDEX card stays in..
 2360         LDA /NEW.WARM.ENTRY
 2370         STA SCM.BASE+$30A
 2380         LDA #$10     Patch Escape Routine
 2390         STA SCM.BASE+$486
 2400         LDY #27
 2410  .4     LDA NEW.ESC.TABLE,Y
 2420         STA SCM.ESC.TABLE,Y
 2430         DEY
 2440         BPL .4
 2450         LDA #$18     Modify MON.RDKEY jump addr
 2460         STA SCM.BASE+$4D9
 2470         LDA #$4C     Patch jump to new DISP LINE
 2480         STA SCM.BASE+$B32
 2490         LDA #NEW.E.DISP.LINE
 2500         STA SCM.BASE+$B33
 2510         LDA /NEW.E.DISP.LINE
 2520         STA SCM.BASE+$B34
 2530         LDA #80      Patch E.INPUT Routine
 2540         STA SCM.BASE+$CA8
 2550         STA SCM.BASE+$CAC
 2560         LDA #NEW.CH
 2570         STA SCM.BASE+$CB1
 2580         LDA #NEW.CV
 2590         STA SCM.BASE+$CB3
 2600         LDA #VTAB
 2610         STA SCM.BASE+$CB5
 2620         LDA /VTAB
 2630         STA SCM.BASE+$CB6
 2640         LDA #SLOTNUM     Install VIDEX in hook
 2650         JSR MON.OUTPORT
 2660         JSR DOS.IOHOOK
 2670         LDA #$8D         Send CR to get VIDEX warm
 2680         JSR MON.COUT     entry point in DOS hook,
 2690         LDY #8           then find warm entry address
 2700         JSR SCM.TEST.DOS
 2710         LDY #1
 2720         LDA (SCM.POINTER),Y
 2730         STA FAKE.COUT+1   Save warm entry as normal
 2740         INY               VIDEX COUT entry
 2750         LDA (SCM.POINTER),Y
 2760         STA FAKE.COUT+2
 2770         LDA #COUT         Hook in new I/O routines
 2780         STA MON.CSW
 2790         LDA /COUT
 2800         STA MON.CSW+1
 2810         LDA #RDKEY
 2820         STA MON.KSW
 2830         LDA /RDKEY
 2840         STA MON.KSW+1
 2850         JSR DOS.IOHOOK
 2860  *--------------------------------
 2870         .DO LCVERSION
 2880         BIT $C080    Write protect RAM
 2890         JMP DOS.COLD.ENTRY
 2900         .ELSE
 2910         RTS
 2920         .FIN
 2930  *--------------------------------
 2940  *
 2960         .DA HOME-1
 2970         .DA ADVNCE-1
 2980         .DA BS-1
 2990         .DA LF-1
 3000         .DA UP-1
 3010         .DA CLREOL-1
 3020         .DA CLREOP-1
 3030         .DA MON.RTS-1
 3040         .DA MON.RTS-1
 3050         .DA UP-1
 3060         .DA BS-1
 3070         .DA ADVNCE-1
 3080         .DA SCM.ESC.L-1
 3090         .DA LF-1
 3100  *--------------------------------
 3110  *  New routines to bind into the
 3120  *  S-C Macro assembler
 3130  *--------------------------------
 3140  LENGTH1             .EQ *-START1
 3150  HERE                .EQ *
 3160         .DO LCVERSION
 3170         .OR $F400
 3180         .ELSE
 3190         .OR $3200
 3200         .FIN
 3210         .TA HERE
 3220  START2              .EQ *
 3230  *--------------------------------
 3260         JMP SCM.WARM.ENTRY
 3270  *
 3290         LDA #COUT
 3300         STA MON.CSW
 3310         LDA /COUT
 3320         STA MON.CSW+1
 3330         LDA #RDKEY
 3340         STA MON.KSW
 3350         LDA /RDKEY
 3360         STA MON.KSW+1
 3370         JSR DOS.IOHOOK
 3380         RTS
 3390  *
 3410         LDA SCM.ED.BEGLIN
 3420         STA NEW.CV
 3430         LDA #0
 3440         STA NEW.CH
 3450         JSR VTAB
 3460         JSR SCM.SPC
 3470         INC NEW.CH
 3480         INC NEW.CH
 3490         LDX #0
 3500  .1     LDA SCM.WBUF,X
 3510         BEQ .5
 3520         ORA #$80
 3530         CMP #$A0     Control char?
 3540         BCS .2       No..
 3550         AND #$7F     Flag it as inverse
 3560  .2     LDY NEW.CH
 3570         CPY #80      End of screen line?
 3580         BCC .4       No..
 3590         LDY #0       Set CH to beg of line
 3600         STY NEW.CH
 3610         LDY NEW.CV
 3620         CPY #23
 3630         BCS .3
 3640         INC NEW.CV   No..
 3650         BNE .4       ..Always
 3660  .3     DEC SCM.ED.BEGLIN
 3670  .4     JSR MON.COUT
 3680         INC NEW.CH
 3690         INX
 3700         BNE .1       ..Always
 3710  .5     JMP CLREOP
 3720  *
 3730  NEW.E.ZAP
 3740         LDA #0       EOL mark
 3750         STA SCM.WBUF,X
 3760         JSR CLREOL
 3770         RTS
 3780  *--------------------------------
 3790  *  Monitor Replacement Routines
 3800  *--------------------------------
 3810  *
 3820  HOME   LDA #$8C     Send Form Feed Char
 3830         JMP MON.COUT
 3840  *
 3850  CLREOL LDA #$9D     Send CLEAREOL char
 3860         JMP MON.COUT
 3870  *
 3880  CLREOP LDA #$8B     Send CLEAREOS char
 3890         JMP MON.COUT
 3900  *
 3910  ADVNCE LDA #$9C     Non-destructive space
 3920         JMP MON.COUT
 3930  *
 3940  BS     LDA #$88     Backspace
 3950         JMP MON.COUT
 3960  *
 3970  LF     LDA #$8A     Linefeed
 3980         JMP MON.COUT
 3990  *
 4000  UP     LDA #$9F     Reverse Linefeed
 4010         JMP MON.COUT
 4020  *--------------------------------
 4030         .DO LCVERSION
 4050         BPL RDKEY
 4060         STA KEYSTROBE
 4070         ORA #$80
 4080         CMP #$81     Shift lock?
 4090         BNE .1
 4100         JSR UNPROTECT.LC.RAM
 4110         LSR SCM.SHIFT.FLAG
 4120         BPL .2       Return with errant key
 4130  .1     CMP #$9A     Shift unlock?
 4140         BNE .3       No, return with key
 4150         JSR UNPROTECT.LC.RAM
 4160         SEC
 4170         ROR SCM.SHIFT.FLAG
 4180  .2     BIT $C080    Reprotect LC RAM
 4190         LDA #$96     Return with errant key
 4200  .3     RTS
 4210  *
 4230         BIT $C083    Enable Bank 2
 4240         BIT $C083
 4250         RTS
 4260         .ELSE
 4280         BPL RDKEY
 4290         STA KEYSTROBE
 4300         ORA #$80
 4310         CMP #$81     Shift lock?
 4320         BNE .1
 4330         LSR SCM.SHIFT.FLAG
 4340         BPL .2       Return with errant key
 4350  .1     CMP #$9A     Shift unlock?
 4360         BNE .3       No, return with key
 4370         SEC
 4380         ROR SCM.SHIFT.FLAG
 4390  .2     LDA #$96     Return with errant key
 4400  .3     RTS
 4410         .FIN
 4420  *--------------------------------
 4430  *
 4440  VTAB   LDA #$9E     Send GOTOXY char
 4450         JSR MON.COUT
 4460         CLC          Create ASCII x-posn
 4470         LDA NEW.CH
 4480         ADC #160
 4490         JSR MON.COUT
 4500         CLC          Create ASCII y-posn
 4510         LDA NEW.CV
 4520         ADC #160
 4530         JMP MON.COUT
 4540  *
 4550  COUT
 4560         PHA            Test for inverse
 4570         PLA
 4580         BMI FAKE.COUT  Not inverse: Take as is
 4590         ORA #$80       Restore to "Normal" Apple ASCII
 4600         CMP #$A0       Control char?
 4610         BCS .1         No..
 4620         ORA #$40       Yes: Make it printable
 4630  .1     TAY            Save char
 4640         LDA FLAGS+SLOTNUM
 4650         PHA            Save flag byte
 4660         ORA #1         Switch in alt char set
 4670         STA FLAGS+SLOTNUM
 4680         TYA            Get char back
 4690         JSR FAKE.COUT
 4700         PLA            Restore flag byte
 4710         STA FLAGS+SLOTNUM
 4720         RTS
 4730  FAKE.COUT
 4740         JMP $FFFF      Address will be fixed later..
 4750  *--------------------------------
 4760  LENGTH2             .EQ *-START2
 4770  THERE               .EQ HERE+LENGTH2-1
 4780  LENGTH              .EQ LENGTH1+LENGTH2
 4790  *--------------------------------
 4800         .EN

Review of "Apple Graphics &
Arcade Game Design"
Bob Sander-Cederlof

If you are at all interested in Apple graphics, or writing animated hi-res games, this book is for you. Jeffrey Stanton, the author, may already be known to you. He is the editor of "The Book of Apple Software, and also has several Apple arcade games on the market. "Apple Graphics & Arcade Game Design" (AGAG) is 288 pages long, and retails for $19.95. (I am selling it for $18 plus shipping.) A coupon in the back enables you to purchase all of the source code shown in the book on diskette for only $15.

There are two parts to the book: first, a thorough explanation of Apple graphics, with numerous examples in both Applesoft and assembly language; second, design and programming of all the parts of a working arcade game.

AGAG is written for the advanced Applesoft or beginning assembly language programmer. You learn about both lo-res and hi-res graphics at the assembly language level. You learn the fundamentals, and then proceed to program scene scrolling, page flipping, laser fire, bomb drops, explosions, scoring, and paddle control routines. Sorry, nothing much about sound generation.

AGAG's pages are divided into 8 chapters as follows:

     1. ( 25 pages) Applesoft Hi-Res
     2. ( 34 pages) Lo-Res Graphics
     3. ( 17 pages) Machine Language Access to Applesoft
                    Hi-Res Routines
     4. ( 23 pages) Hi-Res Screen Architecture
     5. ( 36 pages) Bit-Mapped Graphics
     6. ( 90 pages) Arcade Graphics
     7. ( 44 pages) Games that Scroll
     8. (  5 pages) What Makes a Good Game

I noticed a few errors in the book: on page 149, flow chart lines are incorrectly drawn; on page 284, there is a large block of repeated text, and therefore possibly a missing block which should have been in the space. The word "initialize" is always incorrectly spelled "initilize". The index is very brief, only about 70 lines long; I believe it should be about 3 or 4 times longer to really help in locating items of interest.

Jeff does not seem to know about the existence of the S-C Macro Assembler. He repeatedly mentions the TED, Big-Mac, Merlin Assemblers, and occasionally refers to Lisa and DOS ToolKit. All the listings are in the Big-Mac format. You should have no trouble adapting them to the S-C format.

AGAG is an excellent tutorial, and includes many useful programs and ideas for anyone interested in Apple graphics. I heartily recommend the book, ranking it just under "Beneath Apple DOS" in importance and utility.

Quick Way to Write DOS on a Disk Bob Perkins
Tussy, OK 73088

I just received the July AAL and liked the little article on the "FILEDUMP" command. I had already done just about the same thing.

In fact, I make a lot of changes to DOS. Too many to POKE in every time I boot up. So I started looking around for a simple way to replace the DOS image on a disk without disturbing the programs already on it, and without using MASTER.CREATE. The July Call A.P.P.L.E. had a program to do it, only it seems much more complicated than my solution.

I used the S-C Macro Assembler to create a text file like this:

     :1000  LOAD HELLO
     :1010  POKE -21921,0:POKE -18448,0:POKE

Note the leading blank before the LOAD and the first POKE. It is there to leave room for Applesoft's "]" prompt.

Whenever I want to write the DOS image on a disk, I use the SHOW command to list out WRITE.DOS, and then trace over the two command lines from Applesoft. Presto-Changeo, a new copy of DOS goes out to the disk. I suppose you could even EXEC it, though I prefer to trace over it and haven't tried EXECing.

The LOAD HELLO is there to get the boot file name into DOS's filename buffer. You can use whatever filename you want, of course. POKE-21921 tell DOS that the last command was an INIT for its startup procedure (i.e. AA5F:00). POKE-18448 and -18447 start the write at 9D00 (B7F0:00 9D). POKR -18453 sets the expected volume number to zero, so a match to any volume will occur (B7EB:00). The CALL is to the "write DOS image" code inside DOS.

Correction to Relocatable JSR Article Bob Sander-Cederlof

Last month I described the BIT instruction incorrectly. The next to the last paragraph on page 2 (in "Run-Anywhere Subroutine Calls") should read:

The BIT instruction copies bit 7 of $FF58 into the N-status bit, and bit 6 into the Overflow status bit. This, in other words (since $FF58 has $60 in it) clears N and sets Overflow.

BIT does not affect Carry Status in any way. BIT also sets or clears the Z-status bit, according to the value of the logical product of the A-register and the addressed byte. If you want Z and/or N to be flags to the calling program, you will have to modify them after the BIT instruction.

Large Source Files
and the S-C Macro Assembler
Bill Morgan

One of the more common questions we get is: "How do I best use the .IN and .TF directives to handle very large programs?"

The main technique we use is the Assembly Control File (ACF), a short source file which is mostly made up of .IN statements to call the other modules. Here is an example, called SAMPLE.ACF:

     1000       .IN SAMPLE.EQUATES
     1010       .PG
     1020       .IN SAMPLE.CODE.1
     1030       .PG
     1040       .IN SAMPLE.CODE.2
     1050       .PG
     1060       .IN SAMPLE.DATA
     1070       .PG

SAMPLE.EQUATES is all the definitions for the program, SAMPLE.CODE.1 and SAMPLE.CODE.2 are the main body of the program, and SAMPLE.DATA contains all the variables and ASCII text. When you want to assemble the program, just LOAD SAMPLE.ACF and type MON C then ASM. The Macro Assembler will load each file and assemble it, in the order they are listed in the ACF. The "MON C" shows you the "LOAD file name" for each file, helping you to tell what's where.

Using this technique, a program can conveniently be broken into as many modules as you want, and can be as large as you want. The Macro Assembler itself is 26 source files on two disks! To spread the files across more than one disk, just add drive (and/or slot) specifiers to all the file names.

You can also use the ACF to do global search-and-replace operations on the entire program. Here are the commands to search SAMPLE for all occurrences of the label MON.COUT:

     :REP /       .IN/LOAD/A
     :REP /       .PG/FIND "MON.COUT"/A
     :MON I

This converts SAMPLE.ACF into an EXEC file that will list each occurrence of "MON.COUT" in every module of the program. Here's what the file looks like now:

     1010 FIND "MON.COUT"
     1020 LOAD SAMPLE.CODE.1
     1030 FIND "MON.COUT"
     1040 LOAD SAMPLE.CODE.2
     1050 FIND "MON.COUT"
     1070 FIND "MON.COUT"

The ACF is also a good place for the .OR and .TF statements, comments about the assembly process, and any condition flags. Here is a more complicated version of SAMPLE.ACF:

     1000 *--------------------------------
     1020 *--------------------------------
     1030 LC.FLAG .EQ 0  =0 IF UPPER CASE ONLY
     1040 *              =1 IF LOWER CASE VERSION
     1050 *--------------------------------
     1060        .OR $803
     1070        .DO LC.FLAG
     1080        .TF B.SAMPLE.LC
     1090        .ELSE
     1100        .TF B.SAMPLE.UC
     1110        .FIN
     1120 *--------------------------------
     1130        .IN SAMPLE.EQUATES
     1140        .PG
     1150        .IN SAMPLE.CODE
     1160        .PG
     1170        .DO LC.FLAG
     1190        .PG
     1200        .ELSE
     1220        .PG
     1230        .FIN
     1240        .IN SAMPLE.DATA
     1250        .PG

To use this ACF, just LOAD it, EDIT line 1030 to set LC.FLAG to 0 or 1, set MON C, and ASM. The Macro Assembler will load the appropriate source files for the version you want and direct the object code to the correct target file. To turn this ACF into an EXEC file for searching, you must delete lines 1000-1120, 1170, 1200, and 1230 before doing the REP commands.

For more information on the .IN and .TF directives, see pages 4-6 and 5-3/4 in the Macro Assembler manual. Conditional assembly is discussed on pages 5-9/10 and in chapter 7.

Another Customizing Patch
for the S-C Assembler Bob Sander-Cederlof

Version 4.0 of the S-C Assembler stopped after any assembly error. Many users requested that I modify it to continue to the end of assembly, and display the error count at the end. So I did.

Now some users are requesting that I change it back. They walk away during assembly, and the error messages scroll off the screen. (But you can put .LIST OFF at the beginning, and then only the error lines will list.)

There is a very simple patch for this. The byte at $1D6F ($DD6F in the language card version) is now $18. Change it $38 and assembly will stop after the first error message.

Patch for S-C Macro Assembler Bob Sander-Cederlof

When I added the lower-case options to the S-C Macro Assembler, I overlooked the fact that within .AS and .AT strings, and in ASCII literal constants, you would want lower case codes to be assembled. The assembler as it now is converts all lower case codes to upper case during assembly. For example, ".AS /Example/" would assemble all upper case ASCII, just as though you had written ".AS /EXAMPLE/"

The following patches will correct this problem, allowing you to specify lower case strings and constants when you wish.

     $2961:EA EA EA EA EA EA


     $1074:B8 31
     $118C:B8 31
     $11B2:B8 31
     $187F:B8 31
     $23FA:B8 31

     $31CF:C8 84 7B C9 60 90 04 29 5F 85 61 60

     $1240:20 CF 31

     (or whatever file name you wish)

The patches above are for the version which runs in mother-board RAM. The Language card version has different addresses, and you must first write-enable the language card. Assuming you are currently running the language card version, perform the patch as follows:

     $C083 C083


     $D074:04 F3
     $D18C:04 F3
     $D1B2:04 F3
     $D87F:04 F3
     $E546:04 F3

     $F31B:C8 84 7B C9 60 90 04 29 5F 85 61 60

     $D240:20 1B F3

     (or whatever file name you wish)

Be aware that the above patches may conflict with other patches you may already have applied to your copy of the assembler. If you have already used the area from $31B8 through $31DB, or $F304 through $F326, you will need to use a different area and change the references accordingly.

Blinking Underline Cursor Routine Bill Linn

Early users of the ES-CAPE Applesoft Editing system (formerly known as AED II) have really come to appreciate the blinking underline cursor -- it simply doesn't tire the eyes as much as the standard flashing blank does. With the following subroutine, you can add this special touch to your own assembly language or BASIC programs!

The subroutine hooks into the monitor keyboard input vector at $38 and $39. Each time the monitor RDKEY subroutine is called, my KEYIN subroutine gets control. If the character on the screen at the cursor position is not an underline, I alternate the display of an underline and the original character every 1/4 second. If the original character was an underline, I alternate it with a blank. (If I alternate an underline with an underline, it is difficult to see anything happen!)

Lines 1210-1250 store the KEYIN subroutine's address in the keyboard input vector. When a request for a key press is made by an Applesoft INPUT command, for example, we get control at line 1270. The A-register has the current screen character. I save the A- and X-registers, because KEYIN must exit with the original values unchanged.

Lines 1290-1320 test the current screen character to see whether it is already an underline or not. If it is, I use a blank for the alternating character. Otherwise, I use the original screen contents for an alternating character. I push the alternating character onto the stack.

Lines 1330-1500 do the alternating. I look at the character on the screen: if it is an underline, I substitute the alternating character; if not, I store an underline. The lines 1430-1500 delay for about 1/4 second before the next alternation. If a keypress occurs, the loop ends by branching to ".5" at line 1540. You may wish to vary the blink rate by changing the value loaded into the Y-register at line 1430.

When a key is pressed we end up at line 1540, where I pop the alternating character off the stack. The I call the monitor bell subroutine for a short (10 half-cycles) bell. This makes an audible "click" for user feedback. (If you don't appreciate clicking keyboards, just delete lines 1550 and 1560.) Then I restore the Y-, X-, and A-registers to their original values, and jump into the monitor's KEYIN subroutine at $FD26. The monitor restores the original character to the screen, and returns with the keypress value in the accumulator.

I have set the subroutine origin to $300, but you can assemble it anywhere you like. In fact, it will run anywhere you put without reassembly, just so you load the correct address into $38 and $39 in the HOOK routine.

After assembly, assuming it is origined at $300, you can BSAVE it with "BSAVE B.UNDERLINE,A$300,L$3C. Then to activate this routine from Applesoft, just BRUN the file B.UNDERLINE. All keyboard input through the standard monitor RDKEY subroutine ($FDOC) or Applesoft GET and INPUT statements will be prompted by the underline cursor. An "IN#0" will restore the familiar flashing blank. Have fun!

 1010  *--------------------------------
 1030  *      WRITTEN BY BILL LINN
 1040  *--------------------------------
 1050         .OR $300
 1060  *--------------------------------
 1070  MON.CH     .EQ $24
 1080  MON.BASL   .EQ $28
 1090  MON.KSWL   .EQ $38
 1100  MON.RNDL   .EQ $4E
 1110  *--------------------------------
 1120  DOS.REHOOK .EQ $3EA
 1130  *--------------------------------
 1140  MON.BELL2  .EQ $FBE4
 1150  MON.WAIT   .EQ $FCA8
 1160  MON.KEYIN3 .EQ $FD26
 1170  *--------------------------------
 1180  BLANK      .EQ $A0
 1200  *--------------------------------
 1210  KEYBOARD   .EQ $C000
 1220  *--------------------------------
 1240         STA MON.KSWL
 1250         LDA /KEYIN
 1260         STA MON.KSWL+1
 1270         JMP DOS.REHOOK
 1280  *--------------------------------
 1290  KEYIN  PHA             SAVE SCREEN CHAR
 1300         STX MON.RNDL     SAVE X-REG
 1320         BNE .1            AN UNDERLINE
 1340  .1     PHA          SAVE CHAR TO ALTERNATE
 1350  *--------------------------------
 1370  *--------------------------------
 1380  .2     LDA #UNDERLINE
 1390         LDY MON.CH
 1400         CMP (MON.BASL),Y
 1410         BNE .3
 1420         PLA          GET ALTERNATE CHAR
 1430         PHA          MAINTAIN ON STACK ALSO
 1440  .3     STA (MON.BASL),Y
 1450         LDY #80      80*256 BETWEEN BLINKS
 1460  .4     LDA KEYBOARD      KEY PRESSED?
 1470         BMI .5       YES, CLICK AND RETURN
 1480         DEX
 1490         BNE .4
 1500         DEY
 1510         BNE .4
 1520         BEQ .2       ...ALWAYS
 1530  *--------------------------------
 1540  *      A KEY HAS BEEN PRESSED
 1550  *--------------------------------
 1560  .5     PLA          POP STACK ONCE
 1570         LDY #10      MAKE A "CLICK"
 1580         JSR MON.BELL2
 1590         LDY MON.CH
 1600         LDX MON.RNDL     RESTORE X-REG
 1620         JMP MON.KEYIN3

Review of QUICKTRACE Mike Sanders

I had already started writing my own debugger when I discovered QUICKTRACE; it was just what I needed and saved me all that work.

It has a good display that does not interfere with the normal Apple text screen. You can even trace code that sets the KSWL and CSWL switches and outputs to the screen. The tracing display takes the bottom four lines, but pressing the "P" key causes the normal bottom four lines to be displayed.

Tracing can be in one of three modes: single-step, trace, and background. Single-step and trace are what you would expect, analogous to the commands in the old Apple monitor ROM. Background turns off the display of executed instructions until a breakpoint occurs or the "ESC" key is pressed. This makes background the fastest mode.

Breakpoints can be set to stop when:

  1. Any register or a memory location takes on a specified value.
  2. An address or a range of addresses is referenced.
  3. A specified opcode occurs.

QUICKTRACE can be BRUN at any point in memory and then called from your code by a JSR, or you can preset the QUICKTRACE program counter and start tracing at any location.

Subroutines can be executed at full 6502 speed (not traced). If you already know what the subroutine does there is no need to trace through it. Normally DOS calls are automatically done this way to prevent timing problems.

Overall I feel that QUICKTRACE is one of the five or so best programs I have ever purchased and no machine code programmer should be without it.

One feature not to be overlooked: QUICKTRACE is not copy protected.

QUICKTRACE was programmed by John Rogers and it is distributed by Anthro-Digital Software (formerly called Aurora Systems). It only costs $50.

Current Advertising Rates

For the September 1982 issue the price will be $60 for a full page, $35 for a half page. To be included, I must receive your camera-ready copy by August 20th.

Apple Assembly Line is published monthly by S-C SOFTWARE, P. O. Box 280300, Dallas, TX 75228. Phone (214) 324-2050 Subscription rate is $15 per year, in the USA, sent Second Class Mail; $18 per year sent First Class Mail in USA, Canada, and Mexico; $28 per year sent Air Mail to other countries. Back issues are available for $1.50 each (other countries add $1 per back issue for postage). All material herein is copyrighted by S-C SOFTWARE, all rights reserved. Unless otherwise indicated, all material herein is authored by Bob Sander-Cederlof. (Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.)